References and Further Reading 1. I do not expect to see anything like it again.
On Liberty Mill's On Liberty addresses the nature and limits of the power that can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual. However Mill is clear that his concern for liberty does not extend to all individuals and all societies.
He states that "Despotism is a legitimate mode of government in dealing with barbarians". He also argues that individuals should be prevented from doing lasting, serious harm to themselves or their property by the harm principle. Because no one exists in isolation, harm done to oneself may also harm others, and destroying property deprives the community as well as oneself.
Though this principle seems clear, there are a number of complications. For example, Mill explicitly states that "harms" may include acts of omission as well as acts of commission. Thus, failing to rescue a drowning child counts as a harmful act, as does failing to pay taxesor failing to appear as a witness in court.
All such harmful omissions may be regulated, according to Mill. By contrast, it does not count as harming someone if — without force or fraud — the affected individual consents to assume the risk: Mill does, however, recognise one limit to consent: In these and other cases, it is important to bear in mind that the arguments in On Liberty are grounded on the principle of Utility, and not on appeals to natural rights.
The question of what counts as a self-regarding action and what actions, whether of Utilitarianism deontology essays or commission, constitute harmful actions subject to regulation, continues to Utilitarianism deontology essays interpreters of Mill.
It is important to emphasise that Mill did not consider giving offence to constitute "harm"; an action could not be restricted because it violated the conventions or morals of a given society.
On Liberty involves an impassioned defense of free speech. Mill argues that free discourse is a necessary condition for intellectual and social progress. We can never be sure, he contends, that a silenced opinion does not contain some element of the truth.
He also argues that allowing people to air false opinions is productive for two reasons.
First, individuals are more likely to abandon erroneous beliefs if they are engaged in an open exchange of ideas. Second, by forcing other individuals to re-examine and re-affirm their beliefs in the process of debate, these beliefs are kept from declining into mere dogma.
It is not enough for Mill that one simply has an unexamined belief that happens to be true; one must understand why the belief in question is the true one.
Along those same lines Mill wrote, "unmeasured vituperation, employed on the side of prevailing opinion, really does deter people from expressing contrary opinions, and from listening to those who express them. Helen was the daughter of Harriet Taylor and collaborated with Mill for fifteen years after her mother's death in Social liberty and tyranny of majority[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message Mill believed that "the struggle between Liberty and Authority is the most conspicuous feature in the portions of history".
He introduced a number of different concepts of the form tyranny can take, referred to as social tyranny, and tyranny of the majority.
Social liberty for Mill meant putting limits on the ruler's power so that he would not be able to use his power on his own wishes and make decisions which could harm society; in other words, people should have the right to have a say in the government's decisions.
He said that social liberty was "the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual".
It was attempted in two ways: However, in Mill's view, limiting the power of government was not enough. He stated, "Society can and does execute its own mandates: Individuals are rational enough to make decisions about their well being.
Government should interfere when it is for the protection of society. The sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection.
That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not sufficient warrant. He cannot rightfully be compelled to do or forbear because it will be better for him to do so, because it will make him happier, because, in the opinion of others, to do so would be wise, or even right The only part of the conduct of anyone, for which he is amenable to society, is that which concerns others.
In the part which merely concerns him, his independence is, of right, absolute.The word deontology derives from the Greek words for duty (deon) and science (or study) of (logos).In contemporary moral philosophy, deontology is one of those kinds of normative theories regarding which choices are morally required, forbidden, or permitted.
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UTILITARIANISM AND DEONTOLOGY Action we take must have consequences whether good or bad. Utilitarianism is a theory that focuses on consequences that will bring about the best possible outcome of any situation, in terms of individuality or people, this means . Utilitarianism, Hedonism, and Desert: Essays in Moral Philosophy (Cambridge Studies in Philosophy) [Fred Feldman] on tranceformingnlp.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Fred Feldman has made a substantial contribution to utilitarian moral philosophy. In .