For some time Hume was pigeonholed either as a proto-utilitarian or as a precursor to midth-century ethical noncognitivism, but since the late 20th century there has been developed a much-richer and more historically sensitive approach to his moral writings. This article indicates the main lines of inquiry that this approach has pursued. This article gives a survey of the range of interpretations that have been offered since the s. Baillie is the only reliable book-length treatment at an introductory level.
The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false. The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision. Thus all persons practice philosophy whether they know it or not. Autocosmic Answers What is existing?
Reality consists ultimately of matter and energy and their fundamentally lawlike and unwilled relations in space-time.
To exist is to have a causal relationship with the rest of the universe. The universe is the maximal set of circumstances that includes this statement and no subset of which is causally unrelated to the remainder. Humans do not know why the universe exists or what it is for. The universe operates without supernatural intervention and according to lawlike regularities that can be understood through empirical investigation Thesis of moral realism without special intuition.
Humans have no credible evidence of any supernatural agency or unity. Humans have no credible evidence that any minds enjoy eternal existence. Knowledge is justified true belief. Truth is logical and parsimonious consistency with evidence and with other truth.
Meaning is the context-sensitive connotation ultimately established by relevant denotation and use. All synthetic propositions including this one can only be known from experience and are subject to doubt. A synthetic statement is propositionally meaningless if it is in principle neither falsifiable nor verifiable.
A mind is any volition al conscious faculty for perception and cognition. Minds and ideas consist ultimately of matter.
Mental states are functional states consisting of causal relations among components for processing information. Consciousness is awareness of self and environment. Intelligence is the ability to make, test, and apply inductions about perceptions of self and world.
There are no forms of reasoning or kinds of knowledge that are in principle inaccessible to regular intelligence. As autonomous living intellects, we persons value intelligence and life and the autonomy they need to flourish.
A person is any intelligen t being with significant volitional control over how it affects other beings. All persons have the right to life and liberty. All beings have the right not to suffer torture or extinction. Liberty is volition in the absence of aggression.
Aggression consists essentially of 1 coercion or 2 damage to a person's body, property, or rightful resources. Coercion is compulsion of one person by another through force or threat of aggression. Justice is the minimization, reversal and punishment of aggression.
The purpose of the state is to effect justice, provide aid and sustenance to persons in mortal danger, protect species in danger of extinction, and prevent torture.
Autocosmology is a synthesis of metaphysical naturalismontological materialismepistemological empiricism and positivismmental functionalismtheological atheismaxiological extropianismpolitical libertarianismeconomic capitalismconstitutional federalismbiological evolutionismevolutionary psychology, and technological optimism.
Autocosmology is the worldview asserted by this text. Human Answers Most humans justify their answers to philosophy's questions using one of four methods. Faith is belief based on revelation and exempt from doubt. Mysticism is belief based on private and direct experience of ultimate reality.
Skepticism is belief that is always subject to doubt and justified through objective verification. Cynicism is the absence of belief.God and Cosmos: Moral Truth and Human Meaning and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle.
The Fallacies of Moralism and Moral Aestheticism (after Friedrich Schiller, Leonard Nelson, Camille Paglia, & Robert Hughes) The Fallacy of Moralism. Robust versus minimal moral realism. A delineation of moral realism into a minimal form, a moderate form, and robust form has been put forward in the literature. Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE).. Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
Learn more. Moral realism (also ethical realism or moral Platonism) is the position that ethical sentences express propositions that refer to objective features of the world (that is, features independent of subjective opinion), some of which may be true to the extent that they report those features accurately.
This makes moral realism a non-nihilist form of ethical cognitivism (which accepts that ethical. Realism: Realism, in philosophy, the viewpoint which accords to things which are known or perceived an existence or nature which is independent of whether anyone is thinking about or perceiving them.
The history of Western philosophy is checkered with disputes between those who have defended forms of. The Fallacies of Moralism and Moral Aestheticism (after Friedrich Schiller, Leonard Nelson, Camille Paglia, & Robert Hughes) The Fallacy of Moralism.
John Stuart Mill (–) was the most famous and influential British philosopher of the nineteenth century. He was one of the last systematic philosophers, making significant contributions in logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and social theory.
Philosophical discussion of arguments for the existence of God appeared to have become extinct during the heyday of logical positivism and ordinary language philosophy. However, since the mids, there has been a resurgence of interest in these arguments.
Much of the discussion has focused on.