Effect on decision-making[ edit ] Individual versus group decision-making[ edit ] This image, which can be seen as a young woman or an older woman, serves as an example of how individuals can choose to perceive the same image differently. According to Selective Exposure Theory, people tend to seek out the version of a stimulant that they want to be exposed to, such as a form of the stimulant that they are already familiar with. Selective exposure can affect the decisions people make as individuals or as groups because they may be unwilling to change their views and beliefs either collectively or on their own. A historical example of the disastrous effects of selective exposure and its effects on group dynamics is the series of events leading up to the Bay of Pigs Invasion in
Effect on decision-making[ edit ] Individual versus group decision-making[ edit ] This image, which can be seen as a young woman or an older woman, serves as an example of how individuals can choose to perceive the same image differently. According to Selective Exposure Theory, people tend to seek out the version of a stimulant that they want to be exposed to, such as a form of the stimulant that they are already familiar with.
Selective exposure can affect the decisions people make as individuals or as groups because they may be unwilling to change their views and beliefs either collectively or on their own. A historical example of the disastrous effects of selective exposure and its effects on group dynamics The selective process the series of events leading up to the Bay of Pigs Invasion in Kennedy was given the go ahead by his advisers to authorize the invasion of Cuba by poorly trained expatriates despite overwhelming evidence that it was a foolish and ill-conceived tactical maneuver.
The advisers were so eager to please the President that they confirmed their cognitive bias for the invasion rather than challenging the faulty plan. Additionally, from a psychological perspective, the effects of selective exposure can both stem from motivational and cognitive accounts.
Effect of information quantity[ edit ] According to research study by Fischer, Schulz-Hardt, et al. A group for which only two pieces of decision-relevant information were given had experienced lower levels of selective exposure than the other group who had ten pieces of information to evaluate.
This research brought more attention to the cognitive processes of individuals when they are presented with a very small amount of decision-consistent and decision-inconsistent information.
The study showed that in situations such as this, an individual becomes more doubtful of their initial decision due to the unavailability of resources.
They begin to think that there is not enough data or evidence in this particular field in which they are told to make a decision about. Because of this, the subject becomes more critical of their initial thought process and focuses on both decision-consistent and inconsistent sources, thus decreasing his level of selective exposure.
For the group who had plentiful pieces of information, this factor made them confident in their initial decision because they felt comfort from the fact that their decision topic was well-supported by a large number of resources.
Selective exposure is prevalent within singular individuals and groups of people and can influence either to reject new ideas or information that is not commensurate with the original ideal.
In Jonas et al. This article suggests that confirmation bias is prevalent in decision making. Those who find new information often draw their attention towards areas where they hold personal attachment.
Thus, people are driven toward pieces of information that are coherent with their own expectations or beliefs as a result of this selective exposure theory occurring in action.
Throughout the process of the four experiments, generalization is always considered valid and confirmation bias is always present when seeking new information and making decisions. Recent research has shown that "Confirmatory Information Search" was responsible for the bankruptcy of the Lehman Brothers Investment Bank which then triggered the Global Financial Crisis.
In the zeal for profit and economic gain, politicians, investors and financial advisors ignored the mathematical evidence that foretold the housing market crash in favor of flimsy justifications for upholding the status quo.
There are two primary motivations for selective exposure: Accuracy Motivation and Defense Motivation. Accuracy Motivation explains that an individual is motivated to be accurate in their decision making and Defense Motivation explains that one seeks confirmatory information to support their beliefs and justify their decisions.
Accuracy motivation is not always beneficial within the context of selective exposure and can instead be counterintuitive, increasing the amount of selective exposure. Defense motivation can lead to reduced levels of selective exposure. For example, former Vice President Dick Cheney would only enter a hotel room after the television was turned on and tuned to a conservative television channel.
In Fischer et al.
Researchers explored the impact of social information and its level of physical attractiveness. The data was then analyzed and used to support the idea that selective exposure existed for those who needed to make a decision.
Physical attractiveness affects an individual's decision because the perception of quality improves. Physically attractive information sources increased the quality of consistent information needed to make decisions and further increased the selective exposure in decision-relevant information, supporting the researchers' hypothesis.
Decision makers allow factors such as physical attractiveness to affect everyday decisions due to the works of selective exposure. In another study, selective exposure was defined by the amount of individual confidence. Individuals can control the amount of selective exposure depending on whether they have a low self-esteem or high self-esteem.
Individuals who maintain higher confidence levels reduce the amount of selective exposure. The phrase "decision-consistent information" explains the tendency to actively seek decision-relevant information.
Selective exposure occurs when individuals search for information and show systematic preferences towards ideas that are consistent, rather than inconsistent, with their beliefs.
The researchers found that in three out of five studies participants showed more confidence and scored higher on the Defensive Confidence Scale,  which serves as evidence that their hypothesis was correct. Researchers analyzed the data by using the terror management theory and found that age had no direct effect on specific behaviors.
The researchers thought that a fear of death would yield health-promoting behaviors in young adults. When individuals are reminded of their own death, it causes stress and anxiety, but eventually leads to positive changes in their health behaviors.
Their conclusions showed that older adults were consistently better at promoting and practicing good health behaviors, without thinking about death, compared to young adults.
Selective exposure thus creates barriers between the behaviors in different ages, but there is no specific age at which people change their behaviors.Selective Enrollment Admissions Process Get Your Child into a Selective Enrollment High School.
Do you know the percentage of students accepted into a Chicago Selective Enrollment High School? A . selective synchronization n a sound-recording process that facilitates overdubs by feeding the recorded track to the performer straight from the recording head, (Often shortened to) sel-sync.
Selective Processes, Exposure, Perception, Memory SElECTIVE ELABORATION See SELECTIVE PROCESSES, EXPOSURE, that people are unable to process the volume of infor Opinion-motivated selective exposure is said to occur.
The Selective Process Management Thursday Class Nov. 23rd, A Close up Look at the Selection Process The Selection Process is a systematic series of events, which results in an organization making a selection from a group of applicants.
At Selective, we know floods are a stressful time, which is why we offer a variety of resources to help you prepare, handle and recover from a flood claim. In other words, natural selection is a key process in the evolution of a population. Since a selective sweep also results in selection of neighbouring alleles, the presence of a block of strong linkage disequilibrium might indicate a 'recent' selective sweep near the centre of the block.