Classical Indian translation is characterized by loose adaptation, rather than the closer translation more commonly found in Europe; and Chinese translation theory identifies various criteria and limitations in translation. In the East Asian sphere of Chinese cultural influence, more important than translation per se has been the use and reading of Chinese texts, which also had substantial influence on the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, with substantial borrowings of Chinese vocabulary and writing system.
Facilitation Theory General Facilitation theory, sometimes also called facilitative teaching, is a humanist approach to learningdeveloped during s by an influential American psychologist Carl Rogers and other contributors and is best described in his own words: No, the facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the personal relationship between the facilitator and the learner.
In the second half of the s he started to promote a similar approach for learning and the educational process. His starting beliefs were that people are by nature good and healthy and that every living creature strives to do best from his existence the actualizing tendency.
In his works, Rogers addresses two kinds of learning 3 introduced by earlier theorists 4: Still, this kind of knowledge is difficult to communicate to another.
Rogers suggests three attitudinal qualities necessary for facilitative practice both in counseling and education. These so called core conditions are 5: It is the trust and prizing of his capacity and abilities as a human being.
Empathy means being able to walk in others shoes. The accent here is on understand, not judge or evaluate.
Other tasks of teachers include establishing a pleasant atmosphere in the classroom and thereby facilitating learning and acquisition of new ideas by reducing possible negative effects of external factors. A facilitative teacher should also be open to new ideas, listen to students, pay as much attention to his relationship with the students as he does to the content he is teaching, encouraging learners to take responsibility for their learning and actions and to take self-evaluation as the highest form of evaluation.
He should also use class feedback for further improvements. Still, not all of the work during the educational process can be done by the teacher. Its effectiveness does depend on the learner as well. In order to contribute to their own learning, students should be: The student is on his way, sometimes excitedly, sometimes reluctantly, to becoming a learning, changing being.
Establishing a close contact with the students, getting to know them and offering them empathy and support requires a great amount of effort from teachers, who mostly ignore this side of educational process and orientate only on knowledge they are supposed to pass on to the students. Being real does not mean to release all the frustrations and anger on the students.
That kind of teacher should not be in the classroom at all. This prizing can manifest as listening to what students are saying, but not necessary as listening to evaluate, but listening to learn his ideas, thoughts and feelings.
Students need to feel free to explain their thoughts. Prizing can also manifest through responding to what the students say.The work of Lev Vygotsky () has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory.
Piaget's () theory of cognitive development explains how a child constructs a mental model of the world.
He disagreed with the idea that intelligence was a fixed trait, and regarded cognitive development as a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment.
The Psychodynamic Approach - The Psychodynamic Approach Henry is a man who often finds it difficult to distinguish between reality and fantasy. Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
The English language draws a terminological distinction (not all languages do) between translating (a written text) and interpreting (oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages); under this distinction, translation can begin only after the.
Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy. A champion of andragogy, self-direction in learning and informal adult education, Malcolm S.
Knowles was a very influential figure in the adult education field. EVOLUTION TRENDS The "INFORMATION AGE" & its Evolution into the "Holographic Age" Challenges & Realistic Goals For Survival & Creating A Desirable Future.