Gall-Making Insects - John A. Byers Plant-Insect galls are better known than the organisms that produce them. Galls are colorful and unusual deformations of the meristematic growing plant tissues.
Ethylene Back to Top Ethylene is a gas produced by ripe fruits. Why does one bad apple spoil the whole bunch? Ethylene is used to ripen crops at the same time.
Sprayed on a field it will cause all fruits to ripen at the same time so they can be harvested.
Plant Nutrition Back to Top Unlike animals which obrtain their food from what they eat plants obtain their nutrition from the soil and atmosphere. Using sunlight as an energy source, plants are capable of making all the organic macromolecules they need by modifications Effect of gibberellins the sugars they form by photosynthesis.
However, plants must take up various minerals through their root systems for use. A plant balanced diet Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen are considered the essential elements. Nitrogen, Potassium, and Phosphorous are obtained from the soil and are the primary macronutrients.
Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfur are the secondary macronutrients needed in lesser quantity. The micronutrientsneeded in very small quantities and toxic in large quantities, include Iron, Manganese, Copper, Zinc, Boron, and Chlorine. A complete fertilizer provides all three primary macronutrients and some of the secondary and micronutrients.
The label of the fertilizer will list numbers, for examplewhich refer to the percent by weight of the primary macronutrients. Soils play a role Soil is weathered, decomposed rock and mineral geological fragments mixed with air and water.
Fertile soil contains the nutrients in a readily available form that plants require for growth. The roots of the plant act as miners moving through the soil and bringing needed minerals into the plant roots.
Structure of soil, indicating presence of bacteria, inorganic, and organic matter, water, and air. Image from Purves et al. Plants use these minerals in: Structural components in carbohydrates and proteins Organic molecules used in metabolism, such as the Magnesium in chlorophyll and the Phosphorous found in ATP Enzyme activators like potassium, which activates possibly fifty enzymes Maintaining osmotic balance Mycorrhizae, bacteria, and minerals Plants need nitrogen for many important biological molecules including nucleotides and proteins.
However, the nitrogen in the atmosphere is not in a form that plants can utilize. Many plants have a symbiotic relationship with bacteria growing in their roots: These plants tend to have root nodules in which the nitrogen-fixing bacteria live.
Development of a root nodule, a place in the roots of certain plants, most notably legumes the pea familywhere bacteria live symbiotically with the plant. Images from Purves et al. All the nitrogen in living systems was at one time processed by these bacteria, who took atmospheric nitrogen N2 and modified it to a form that living things could utilize such as NO3 or NO4; or even as ammonia, NH3 in the example shown below.
Pathway for converting fixing atmospheric nitrogen, N2, into organic nitrogen, NH3. Not all bacteria utilize the above route of nitrogen fixation.
Many that live free in the soil, utilize other chemical pathways. Nitrogen uptake and conversion by various soil bacteria. Roots have extensions of the root epidemal cells known as root hairs. While root hairs greatly enhance the surface area hence absorbtion surfacethe addition of symbiotic mycorrhizae fungi vastly increases the area of the root for absorbing water and minerals from the soil.
Role of the root hairs in increasing the surface area of roots to promote increased uptake of water and minerals from the soil. Water and Mineral Uptake Back to Top Animals have a circulatory system that transports fluids, chemicals, and nutrients around within the animal body.JANUARY.
January 31, “We too have our thaws. They come to our January moods, when our ice cracks, and our sluices break loose. Thought that was frozen up under stern experience gushes forth in feeling and expression. Aloe vera has been used for a host of purposes since the ancient Egyptians called it the “plant of immortality.” Since then, its uses have become more targeted and medicinal, and it's one of the leading therapies for sunburns.
Plant gall making insects in the families Cecidomyiidae, Cynipidae, and other insect families. The term hormone is derived from the Greek hormaein, meaning “to set in motion.”It refers to a chemical substance that has a regulatory effect on a certain organ or organs.
There are sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, thyroid hormones, insulin. What Is Gemmotherapy? Gemmotherapy (use of Gemmo's) is a modern method of draining the body of toxins.
It is a drainage therapy using the buds and other very young parts of plants such as the buds or other embryonic plant tissues to stimulate elimination of toxic compounds from the body by opening up cellular detoxification pathways.. Gemmo's are harvested in the spring, throughout the period.
Hormones are chemicals produced by one kind of tissue in an organism and then transported to other tissues in the organism, where they produce some kind of response.