Link Julius Caesar was a military general and statesman during the Roman Republic. He had a profound impact on Western civilization as a military leader, politician, writer and historian. Not much is known about his childhood. During this time, a civil war raged between his uncle Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelia Sulla, his political rival.
According to Plutarch and the writings of scholar Brendan Woods, the whole campaign resulted in conquered cities, subdued tribes, one million men sold into slavery, and another three million dead in battle. Ancient historians notoriously exaggerated numbers of this kind, but Caesar's conquest of Gaul was certainly the greatest military invasion since the campaigns of Alexander the Great.
The victory was also far more lasting than those of Alexander's: Gaul never regained its Celtic identity, never attempted another nationalist rebellion, and remained loyal to Rome until the fall of the Western Empire in C. Fall of the first triumvirate Despite his successes and the benefits to Rome, Caesar remained unpopular among his peers, especially the conservative faction, who suspected him of wanting to be king.
This was the last act of the First Triumvirate. Crassus was killed in 53 B. Without Crassus or Julia, Pompey drifted towards the Optimates.
Still in Gaul, Caesar tried to secure Pompey's support by offering him one of his nieces in marriage, but Pompey refused.
The civil war An engraving depicting Gaius Julius Caesar. Moreover, the Senate forbade Caesar to stand for a second consulship in absentia.
Caesar thought he would be prosecuted and politically marginalized if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a Consul or without the power of his army.
Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. On January 10, 49 B. Historians differ as to what Caesar said upon crossing the Rubicon; the two competing lines are "Alea iacta est" "The die is cast" and "Let the dice fly high!
This minor controversy is occasionally seen in modern literature when an author attributes the less popular Menander line to Caesar. Caesar pursued Pompey to Brindisium, hoping to restore their alliance of ten years prior. Pompey managed to elude him, however.
So instead of giving chase Caesar decided to head for Hispania saying, "I set forth to fight an army without a leader, so as later to fight a leader without an army.
He then returned east, to challenge Pompey in Greecewhere on July 10, 48 B. He decisively defeated Pompey, despite Pompey's numerical advantage nearly twice the number of infantry and considerably more cavalryat Pharsalus in an exceedingly short engagement in 48 B.
In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator, with Marcus Antonius as his Master of the Horse; Caesar resigned this dictatorship after eleven days and was elected to a second term as consul with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus as his colleague.
Caesar then became involved with the Alexandrine civil war between Ptolemy and his sister, wife, and co-regnant queen, the Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra; he is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey's head, which was offered to him by Ptolemy's chamberlain, Pothinus, as a gift.
In any event, Caesar defeated the Ptolemaic forces and installed Cleopatra as ruler, with whom he fathered his only known biological son, Ptolemy XV Caesar, better known as "Caesarion. Caesar and Cleopatra never married.
In fact they could not marry. As Roman law stood, the institution of marriage was only recognized between two Roman citizens and as Cleopatra was Queen of Egypt, she was not a Roman citizen.
In Roman eyes, this did not even constitute adultery, which could only occur between two Roman citizens. Caesar is believed to have committed adultery numerous times during his last marriage, which lasted 14 years but produced no children. After spending the first months of 47 B.
Thence, he proceeded to Africa to deal with the remnants of Pompey's senatorial supporters. He quickly gained a significant victory at Thapsus in 46 B. Nevertheless, Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar's former propraetorian legate legatus propraetore and second in command in the Gallic War, escaped to Hispania.
Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Munda in March 45 B. During this time, Caesar was elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 B.
Aftermath of the civil war Caesar returned to Italy in September 45 B. Among his first tasks he filed his will, naming Octavian Augustus as the heir to everything he had including his title.
Caesar also wrote that if Octavian died before Caesar did, Marcus Junius Brutus would inherit everything. That also applied to a situation where, if Octavian died after inheriting everything, Brutus would inherit it from Octavian.Julius Caesar was a military general and statesman during the Roman Republic.
He had a profound impact on Western civilization as a military leader, politician, writer and historian. A Short Biography.
Ancient Rome Biography of Julius Caesar. Biographies >> Ancient Rome. Occupation: Roman general and dictator; Born: July BC in Rome, Italy; Politics in Rome became increasingly hostile while Caesar was in Gaul.
Many of the leaders were jealous of Caesar and his following. Even Pompey became jealous and soon Caesar and . Augustus (also known as Octavian) was the first emperor of ancient tranceformingnlp.comus came to power after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE.
In 27 BCE Augustus “restored” the republic of Rome, though he himself retained all real power as the princeps, or “first citizen,” of tranceformingnlp.comus held that title until his death in 14 CE. Julius Caesar: Julius Caesar, celebrated Roman general and statesman, who was assassinated by a group of nobles on the Ides of March.
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. DIR Atlas AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.) [Additional entry on this emperor's life is available in DIR Archives]. Garrett G. Fagan Pennsylvania State University. Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history.
A detailed Biography of Julius Caesar brought to you in an essay. Toll Free: more It is believed that the first 20 years of Caesar's life were typified by rivalries between the Senate and the assembly.
the fall of the Roman. Leaders after Octavian held overwhelming control of power that they could sustain thus abusing it.